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## viernes, 28 de octubre de 2011

### GRADE 1 LESSON 1 *NUMBERS FROM 1 TO 20

Here you have some printable activities to learn the numbers up to 20.

English Numbers: Cardinal Numbers

The following table shows the names of numbers. These numbers are sometimes called cardinal numbers. You can see from the numbers in this table how to form all other numbers.

 Cardinal Numbers /числителни бройни/ 0 zero, oh, nought, nil, love, nothing 1 one 2 two 3 three 4 four 5 five 6 six 7 seven 8 eight 9 nine 10 ten 11 eleven 12 twelve 13 thirteen 14 fourteen 15 fifteen 16 sixteen 17 seventeen 18 eighteen 19 nineteen 20 twenty 21 twenty-one 22 twenty-two 23 twenty-three 24 twenty-four 25 twenty-five 26 twenty-six 27 twenty-seven 28 twenty-eight 29 twenty-nine 30 thirty 40 forty (no "u") 50 fifty 60 sixty 70 seventy 80 eighty 90 ninety 100 a/one hundred 101 a hundred and one 110 a hundred and ten 120 a hundred and twenty 200 two hundred 1,000 a/one thousand 1,001 a thousand and one 1,010 a thousand and ten 2,000 two thousand 10,000 ten thousand 11,000 eleven thousand 100,000 a/one hundred thousand 1,000,000 a/one million 2,000,000 two million 1,000,000,000 a/one billion

Note: In the past British speakers used "billion" to mean a million million. However, nowdays they usually use it to mean a thousand million (a milliard), like American speakers.

### Expressing Numbers in English

:: If a number is in the range 21 to 99, and the second digit is not zero, we should write the number as two words separated by a hyphen:
25 twenty-five
57 fifty-seven
89 eighty-nine

:: Numbers over 100 are generally written in figures. However if you want to say them aloud or want to write them in words rather than figures you put 'and' in front of the number expressed by the last two figures. For example:
203 two hundred and three (AmE: two hundred three)
622 six hundred and twenty-two (AmE: six hundred twenty-two)

:: Numbers between 1000 and 1,000,000 is usually said or written in words as:
1,803 one thousand, eight hundred and three (AmE: one thousand, eight hundred three)
1,963 one thousand, nine hundred and sixty-three (AmE: one thousand, nine hundred sixty-three)
2,840 two thousand, eight hundred and forty (AmE: two thousand, eight hundred forty)

Four-figure numbers ending in 00 can also be said or written as a number of hundreds. For example, 1800 can be said or written as "eighteen hundred"

:: If the number 1963 is being used to identify something, it is said as "one nine six three". We always say each figure separately like this with telephone numbers. If a telephone number contains a double number, we use the word "double":
561 6603 five six one [pause] double six 'oh' three (AmE: five six one [pause] six six 'oh' three)

:: Saying years. We normally say a year in two parts. In the case of years ending in "00", we say the second part in "hundred":
1058 ten fifty-eight
1706 seventeen hundred and six (or 'seventeen oh six')
1865 eighteen sixty-five
1900 nineteen hundred

There are two ways of saying years ending in "01" to "09" before 2000. For example: "1901" can be said as "nineteen oh one" or "nineteen hundred and one". The year 2000 is read "two thousand", 2006 "two thousand and six" (AmE: two thousand six). Post-2010 dates are often said as normal (2010 would be "twenty ten").

:: Flight numbers. We pronounce a flight number in two parts or digit-by-digit. For example:
110 one ten (or 'one one oh')
1248 twelve forty-eight
2503 twenty-five oh three
3050 three oh five oh (or 'three zero five zero', 'thirty fifty')

:: Expressing millions.
1,412,605 one million four hundred (and) twelve thousand six hundred (and) five
2,760,300 two million seven hundred (and) sixty thousand three hundred

Remember: The British use 'and' before tens and ones but the Americans usually leave the 'and' out.

### Ways of expressing the number 0

 0 = nil in football and other sports, for scores of 0 (AmE: zero or nothing) 0 = love in tennis 0 = zero in temperatures to refer to freezing point (0° Celsius, 0° Fahrenheit) 0 = nought in mathematics (AmE: zero) 0 = oh for telephone numbers 0 = oh (or zero) for flight numbers

Notes:
1. We use zero to express some numerical values such as temperatures, taxes, and interest rates.
2. We can pronounce "0" like the letter "o", when we are reading out numbers figure by figure (e. g. telephone number, flight number, credit card number, etc.)

### Fractional numbers /дроби/

 ½ a half 0.5 British English nought point five American English zero point five 2½ two and a half 2.5 two point five ¼ a quarter 0.25 British English nought point two five American English zero point two five ¾ three quarters American English also three fourths 0.75 British English nought point seven five American English zero point seven five

### Writing full stops and commas in numbers

Use a full stop (.) to separate the main part of a number from the decimal part. 3.062 means 'three point nought six two'.
Say point to refer to the full stop. You can use a comma (,) in large numbers to separate the hundreds, thousands, and millions. 3,062 means 'three thousand and sixty-two'. In British English, spaces are sometimes used instead of commas (3 062).
Remember: Speakers of some other languages use (,) and (.) in the opposite way - the commas for the decimals and the points for thousands, millions, etc.

# Writing Numbers

 Rule 1. Spell out single-digit whole numbers. Use numerals for numbers greater than nine. Correct Examples: I want five copies. I want 10 copies.

 Rule 2. Be consistent within a category. For example, if you choose numerals because one of the numbers is greater than nine, use numerals for all numbers in that category. If you choose to spell out numbers because one of the numbers is a single digit, spell out all numbers in that category. If you have numbers in different categories, use numerals for one category and spell out the other. Correct Examples: My 10 cats fought with their 2 cats.My ten cats fought with their two cats. Given the budget constraints, if all 30 history students attend the four plays, then the 7 math students will be able to attend only two plays. (Students are represented with figures; plays are represented with words.) Incorrect Example: I asked for five pencils, not 50.

 Rule 3. Always spell out simple fractions and use hyphens with them. Examples: One-half of the pies have been eaten. A two-thirds majority is required for that bill to pass in Congress.

 Rule 4. A mixed fraction can be expressed in figures unless it is the first word of a sentence. Examples: We expect a 5 1/2 percent wage increase. Five and one-half percent was the maximum allowable interest.

 Rule 5. The simplest way to express large numbers is best. Round numbers are usually spelled out. Be careful to be consistent within a sentence. Correct: You can earn from one million to five million dollars. Incorrect: You can earn from one million to \$5,000,000. Correct: You can earn from five hundred to five million dollars. Correct: You can earn from \$5 hundred to \$5 million. Incorrect: You can earn from \$500 to \$5 million. Incorrect: You can earn from \$500 to five million dollars.

 Rule 6. Write decimals in figures. Put a zero in front of a decimal unless the decimal itself begins with a zero. Examples: The plant grew 0.79 of a foot in one year. The plant grew only .07 of a foot this year because of the drought.

 Rule 7. With numbers that have decimal points, use a comma only when the number has five or more digits before the decimal point. Place the comma in front of the third digit to the left of the decimal point. When writing out such numbers, use the comma where it would appear in the figure format. Use the word and where the decimal point appears in the figure format. Examples: Examples: \$15,768.13: Fifteen thousand, seven hundred sixty-eight dollars and thirteen cents \$1054.21: One thousand fifty-four dollars and twenty-one cents Note: If the number has no decimal point, authorities disagree on whether to begin using the comma with four-digit numbers or to begin using the comma with five-digit numbers. When writing out these numbers, I recommend using the comma where it appears in the numerical form. 1,054 schools OR 1054 schools: one thousand, fifty-four schools OR one thousand fifty-four schools 12,154 schools: twelve thousand, one hundred fifty-four schools

 Rule 8. The following examples apply when using dates: Examples: The meeting is scheduled for June 30. The meeting is scheduled for the 30th of June. We have had tricks played on us on April 1. The 1st of April puts some people on edge.

 Rule 9. When expressing decades, you may spell them out and lowercase them. Example: During the eighties and nineties, the U.S. economy grew.

 Rule 10. If you wish to express decades using incomplete numerals, put an apostrophe before the incomplete numeral but not between the year and the s. Correct: During the '80s and '90s, the U.S. economy grew. Incorrect: During the '80's and '90's, the U.S. economy grew.

 Rule 11. You may also express decades in complete numerals. Again, don't use an apostrophe between the year and the s. Example: During the 1980s and 1990s, the U.S. economy grew.

 Rule 12. Normally, spell out the time of day in text even with half and quarter hours. With o'clock, the number is always spelled out. Examples: She gets up at four thirty before the baby wakes up. The baby wakes up at five o'clock in the morning.

 Rule 13. Use numerals with the time of day when exact times are being emphasized or when using A.M. or P.M. Examples: Monib's flight leaves at 6:22 A.M. Please arrive by 12:30 sharp. She had a 7:00 P.M. deadline.

 Rule 14. Use noon and midnight rather than 12:00 P.M. and 12:00 A.M.

 Rule 15. Hyphenate all compound numbers from twenty-one through ninety-nine. Examples: Forty-three persons were injured in the train wreck. Twenty-three of them were hospitalized.

 Rule 16. Write out a number if it begins a sentence. Examples: Twenty-nine people won an award for helping their communities.That 29 people won an award for helping their communities was fantastic! OR That twenty-nine people won an award for helping their communities was fantastic!